Vasco da Gama

Since Roman times, traders from various countries had coexisted and their ships were generally unarmed.

Henry the Navigator was an infante of the Kingdom of Portugal and an important figure in the early days of the Portuguese Empire. Scurvy vitamin C deficiency affected the crew. Middle East Timeline: Events Timeline: People Timeline: In , fighting between France and Britain broke out in Europe and spread to India. Spain Timeline: Their discoveries have inspired and helped thousands of travellers and explorers over centuries.

In the 16th century, over half of Portugal's state revenue came from West African gold and Indian pepper and other spices; with the profits from spices greatly outweighing the gold. In , a mosque was established in Canton and by the number of foreign traders was so large that an area of the city was set aside for them. Iron Age Timeline: The Dutch concentrated on the spice trade.

Wars Timeline: The caravel , a ship with a shallow draft and the ability to sail to windward with a combination of square and lateen sails, is said to have been perfected here. The continent of America was named after Spanish explorer Amerigo Vespucci.

Portuguese discovery of the sea route to India

These monuments were meant to affirm the Portuguese sovereignty in these places so that other explorers who arrived later did not take the land for themselves as discoveries. Finally, Vasco da Gama managed to get an ambiguous letter of concession rights to trade. Only the markets of Venice and Genoa then scattered these spices all over Europe, great in cost, and without guaranteed arrival.

Quickly, his captains discovered Madeira and the Azores. Only the Canary Islands were inhabited, and that fact alone made them highly valuable and desirable, as the need for slaves in the European mainland was becoming harder to maintain. By this long route, Spain reaped some of the profits of Far Eastern commerce. He had been away for more than two years, travelled 38,km 24, miles and spent days at sea.

Here da Gama met with opposition from Arab traders, who had established themselves there much earlier. The sailors had sailing charts marked with the positions of the African coast known until then, quadrants , astrolabes of various sizes, tables with calculations — such as astronomical tables of Abraham Zacuto — needle and bobs.

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The main objective of these conquests down the dangerous African coast line is clear for all those with a deep understanding of the history of discovery: From then, Columbus paid repeated visits to the western land and found himself in Central and South America.

His year-long journey is recorded in Livres des merveilles du monde or Book of the Marvels of the World.

In an effort to limit production of nutmeg to their islands of Banda and Amboina, they systematically destroyed the trees on other islands. Why, you ask?

10 greatest explorers of all time

Vasco da Gama, at the age of 28, was sent by the Portuguese king Manuel I on July 8th, , to take his flotilla of four ships and men around Africa to India and bring back spices. The table below gives a rough view of european dominance over time: Royalty Timeline: When the remaining two ships returned to Lisbon in early September of , only 55 seamen were still alive.

During this time , the Dutch were at war with Spain. Historians Timeline: During the next century, the French would operate mostly in India and the Indian Ocean. Having guaranteed the full right to sail in the Eastern seas, King Dom Joao II of Portugal organized an expedition with the objective to sail all the way to India.