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Pipilan with rests on the strong beats. For a general history of gamelan notation, see J. For the purposes of this study, I have taken this sense of rasa to be primary: In addition, he was an accomplished instrumentalist.

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Very few musicians support themselves entirely from performing. This school was only for aristocrats, but Sastro Tugiyo was able to tag along with a friend of his who was of noble birth. Most musicians fall somewhere in between. I am also basing these statements on personal communications from musicians, in particular Rahayu Supanggah, who headed an oral history project in the Solo area. A few expert groups would not always announce the pieces beforehand: Martopangrawit — , generally considered to be the foremost Solonese musician of his generation.

He had several thousand abdi dalem servants and retainers , a fair number of whom were musicians and dancers. Because I deal simultaneously with aesthetics, language about music, culturally constructed emotion concepts, and Javanese culture in general, I am hoping that the study will be of interest not only to ethnomusicologists, but also to music aestheticians, cognitive anthropologists, psychologists, linguists, Southeast Asianists, and to musicologists who focus on musical affect.

Both are terms that have been used for different purposes, and with many different meanings. The shift from informal to institutionalized music education had begun several decades earlier, with the establishment of music schools, for the educated classes, that were privately run by court musicians. An additional problem with questionnaires is that the genre itself is relatively foreign to the world of Javanese musicians, some of whom are nonliterate. This context may be taken for granted when one is a cultural insider, but it becomes much less transparent in a cross-cultural setting.

See Florida , and Serat Pasindhen Badhaya The transition to a written tradition has been slow and far from complete: I am not sure there is such a thing as a typical Solonese musician, so I hesitate to say that he is one of them.

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In particular, he was very concerned that male singers should sound masculine. Ca-tholic priest. When SMKI opened in he was hired in the research division. God, polytheism. Eventually campursari entered a kind of revival around the late s , at which time the instrumentation came to center around the electronic keyboard of which there may be one or several , to which are usually added traditional double-headed barrel drums, as well as a variable assortment of other Western and Javanese instruments.

The custom of beginning with serious pieces and ending with exuberant ones seems to be increasingly disregarded. Any weaknesses that remain after so much expert advice are entirely of my own making. Judith Becker, in her book Traditional Music in Modern Java, argues that some of the innovations in gamelan composition since Independence were unprecedented in kind. Westerners usually hear the interval from 3 to 2 as a whole step, and from 2 to 1 as a half step, even though both of them are actually closer to three quarters of a step from 3 to 1 is quite close to a minor third, with pitch 2 being more or less equidistant from both 1 and 3.

Becker According to Sukanto, however, these songs are actually intended for adults, and they have double meanings that tend to the pornographic May 12, Aminef in Jakarta and especially Nelly Paliama helped out in countless ways in administering these grants.

Melismas are shown by ties under the notes, or in typed notation by underscoring.